People come from Africa, from where they have spread to all continents over the millennia. During the migration and then the isolation of groups on individual continents, they began to acquire their characteristics and their genetic information gained different deviations from native people from Africa. It is these variations in DNA that give you the opportunity to learn the geographical and ethnic origin of you or your family.
Genetic origin can be traced along paternal line or maternal line.
Paternal lines - Y chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) testing
Y chromosome analysis - 23 characters
Chromosome Y is a piece of nuclear DNA that is inherited only from father to son and carries male sexual characteristics and fertility. Since chromosome Y is inherited only in the paternal line, it is possible to find out the origin of the male lineage by its analysis or to find distant relatives with whom we no longer have a common surname.
If we go back to the history of each of us about 60,000 years ago, we will find one common ancestor of all living people. This ancestor is called the Y-chromosomal Adam, and was originally from Africa. All men living today have a piece of this Adam's DNA in them, but over the millennia, there have been various small changes that have been inherited and help to determine the origin of each of us along the paternal line.
Examination Principle: Chromosome Y is the smallest chromosome in the human genome and much of its DNA is the so-called non-combining non-coding region, which is a suitable "recording device" for genetic changes. In these sections, both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and multiple short tandem repeats (STPs) are conserved. These sections are analyzed by molecular genetic methods and the result of the examination can be used to reconstruct family history.
Y-chromosome analysis can take us up to 4000-5000 years back in the family history.
For testing it is necessary to send a sample with male genetic equipment. I.e. men can send their own sample of buccal mucosal swab, women from a blood relative (father, brother, father's uncle).
Maternal line - mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing
Analysis of HRV1 + HRV2 segments
Mitochondria, a small organelle within all of our cells, has its DNA called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This organelle is passed only from mothers to her offspring. And only daughters can pass it on to their children. Therefore, it is inherited only in the maternal line. If each of us went into the deep past (about 150,000 years ago) we would all meet at one time by one ancestor mother. Scientists call her mitochondrial Eve, originally from Africa. All living people today are descendants of this Eve. Over the millennia, there were occurring minor variations in the genetic information of Eve's mitochondrial DNA, which gave rise to various maternal haplogroups. These haplogroups are characteristic for individual continents. In the European population, there are 7 maternal lineages that are typical for native Europeans (but always from their mother's lineage).
Principle of examination:
Mitochondrial DNA is a circular DNA molecule carrying several genes required for the functioning of all cells of the human body. It also contains 3 non-coding regions (hypervariable region HRV1-3), which are subject to faster genetic changes than mtDNA regions encoding functional proteins. Two of the three HRV regions are suitable for genealogical research of the origin of the genus. Based on the analysis of mutations in these sequences, family history can be mapped.
A complete examination of mt DNA (HRV1 and HRV2 areas) will show you where your ancestor came from and will take you about 1-5 thousand years back.
Both women and men can be tested.
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