Maternal line

Maternal line - mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing

Analysis of HRV1 + HRV2 segments


Mitochondria, a small organelle within all of our cells, has its DNA called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This organelle is passed only from mothers to her offspring. And only daughters can pass it on to their children. Therefore, it is inherited only in the maternal line. If each of us went into the deep past (about 150,000 years ago) we would all meet at one time by one ancestor mother. Scientists call her mitochondrial Eve, originally from Africa. All living people today are descendants of this Eve. Over the millennia, there were occurring minor variations in the genetic information of Eve's mitochondrial DNA, which gave rise to various maternal haplogroups. These haplogroups are characteristic for individual continents. In the European population, there are 7 maternal lineages that are typical for native Europeans (but always from their mother's lineage).

Principle of examination:

Mitochondrial DNA is a circular DNA molecule carrying several genes required for the functioning of all cells of the human body. It also contains 3 non-coding regions (hypervariable region HRV1-3), which are subject to faster genetic changes than mtDNA regions encoding functional proteins. Two of the three HRV regions are suitable for genealogical research of the origin of the genus. Based on the analysis of mutations in these sequences, family history can be mapped.

A complete examination of mt DNA (HRV1 and HRV2 areas) will show you where your ancestor came from and will take you about 1-5 thousand years back.

Both women and men can be tested.