Ticks and tick-transmitted pathogens are a significant risk to human health in (Central) Europe. Tick-borne diseases are the most widespread zoonoses on this continent (i.e. diseases transmitted to a definite host by another species). In particular, two diseases are most significant in terms of the number of clinical cases and their severity: tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme disease (LD). The agents of both diseases have been described relatively recently. The geographical distribution and incidence of clinical cases are currently changing very dynamically, therefore both diseases are referred to as "emerging diseases". This term refers to diseases appearing completely new or occurring with different intensity in other geographical areas or in a different context (different part of the population, etc.) than in the past.
In Europe, an average of 5 453 cases of TBE and 26 826 cases of LD per year are registered. The highest incidence of TBE in Europe is reported from Estonia, Slovenia, Latvia and Lithuania (average annual incidence: 13.1; 12.7; 12.0 and 11.3 cases / 100,000 population, respectively). The highest incidence of LD is then recorded in Slovenia, Estonia, Lithuania and the Czech Republic (average annual incidence: 201.4; 58.9; 51.4 and 36.6 cases / 100.000 population, respectively) (source: WHO, CISID; EAA) , EPIDAT).
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